Effects of Bait Age and Prior Protein Feeding on Cumulative Time-Dependent Mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to GF-120 Spinosad Baits
A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies, GF-120, was tested in cages to determine effects of pretreatment diet and bait aging before use on cumulative mortality rates of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Protein-starved and protein-fed, 9-d-old flies both experienced varying overall cumulative mortality at 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. Pretreatment diet had no significant effect on mortality. Overall mortality rates were below 10% for 4 h, 39–43% at 8 h, but mortality in all treatments increased to 89–93% by 24 h, and 99% by 48 h. In a second experiment, GF-120 baits were either freshly prepared or aged for 24 h. Subtreatments consisted of protein-fed and protein-starved flies. The 24-h-aged bait killed significantly more flies at 4 and 8 h than the freshly prepared bait. Protein-starved flies had significantly higher mortality at 4 h and marginally higher mortality at 8 h than protein-fed flies. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences among treatments, and overall morality rose to 99–100% by 48 h. These results may explain differences noted in previous publications in which fruit fly mortality to GF-120 was reported as unusually low as well as reports of bait ineffectiveness for protein-fed flies. The overall impact of any initial repellency of GF-120 seems negligible as judged by overall cumulative mortality at later evaluation times.
More about this publication?
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
- Editorial Board
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Information for Advertisers
- Visit this journal's homepage
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Open access content
Free trial content