Release of Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin from Synergized Ear Tags on Cattle and Effects on Horn Fly Mortality

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A study was conducted to determine the release rates of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and permethrin from synergized insecticidal cattle ear tags and their effects on mortality of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). PBO was released from the ear tags at a higher rate than permethrin in both winter and summer trials. The cumulative release of PBO and permethrin from the ear tags at the end of 18 wk in the winter trial was 50.4 and 30.3%, respectively. The cumulative release of PBO and permethrin from the ear tags at the end of 18 wk in the summer trial was 66.7 and 44.7%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the cumulative daily high ambient temperature (°C) and the cumulative release of both PBO and permethrin. Compared with the susceptible horn fly strain, the permethrin-resistant strain demonstrated 7.9- and 12.8-fold resistance to permethrin at the levels of LC50 and LC90, respectively. When exposed to filter paper wipes taken from the shoulders of cattle treated with the PBO-synergized permethrin tags from the summer trial, the resistant strain demonstrated reduced mortality compared with the susceptible strain. The mortality of the resistant strain at 2- and 3-h exposure exhibited a pattern of declining fly mortalities as a result of the decreased release of PBO and permethrin, as well as the decline in the ratio of PBO:permethrin released from the tags after 8 wk. A similar decline in horn fly mortalities was observed in the susceptible strain at 30-min exposure time that coincided with the pattern of reduced release of PBO and permethrin from the ear tags over the course of summer trial.

Keywords: insecticidal ear tags; permethrin; piperonyl butoxide; release; resistance

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: October 1, 2008

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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