The insecticidial and biological activity of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoid acetamiprid was determined against the western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Acetamiprid was very active against termites in topical applications, with an LD50 = 0.02 ng per termite. Even though acetamiprid was extremely toxic in topical applications, deposits ≥50 ppm on sand were required to consistently provide >90% kill of termites within 7 d after a 1-h exposure. Termites were quickly affected by brief exposures to sand treated with 1 ppm acetamiprid and within 1 h, their locomotion was dramatically impaired. Acetamiprid was transferred from donors to recipients only when donors were held on deposits ≥50 ppm for 1 h. Deposits even as low as 1 ppm were repellent and termites failed to tunnel into treated sand, and there was no significant mortality. Exposure to acetamiprid impaired locomotion of termites as did other slow-acting neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid. Acetamiprid was repellent at all concentrations tested, acting like type I pyrethroid treatments in soil. A new subcategory of type III soil termiticides is proposed that incorporates the sublethal and delayed effects observed in neonicotinoid insecticides, and repellency at certain concentrations.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.