The efficacy of three reduced-risk insecticides (pyrethrins, insecticidal soap, and narrow-range mineral oil) was determined for nymphs and adults of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), an exotic pest of North American soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. These insecticides also were evaluated for nontarget effects on one of the aphid’s key biological control agents, multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), including first and third instars, pupae, and adults. A Potter Spray Tower was used to conduct direct spray laboratory bioassays. Results indicated that although pyrethrins and narrow-range mineral oil caused 100% mortality to A. glycines nymphs and adults at 72 h posttreatment, insecticidal soap caused equivalent mortality to only the nymphs during the same time period. However, A. glycines adult mortality due to the insecticidal soap (83.3%) was significantly greater than the control. Pyrethrins were highly toxic to first instars of H. axyridis (98% mortality), but they had no effect on third instars, pupae, or adults. Mineral oil and insecticidal soap were moderately lethal to first (48.9 and 40% mortality, respectively) and third (31.9 and 38.8% mortality, respectively) instars of H. axyridis, but they had no effect on pupae and adults. Our results suggest that pyrethrins, insecticidal soap, and narrow-range mineral oil may prove useful for soybean aphid management in organic soybean due to efficacy against the aphid with differential nontarget effects on select stages of H. axyridis. Additional studies will be necessary to elucidate the efficacy of these insecticides under field conditions.
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