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Reduced fitness among resistant versus susceptible individuals slows resistance evolution and makes it easier to manage. A loss of resistance costs could indicate novel adaptations or mutations contributing to resistance. We measured costs of resistance to imidacloprid in a Massachusetts
resistant population compared with a Massachusetts susceptible population in 1999 in terms of fecundity, hatching success, egg development time, and sprint speed. Resistance was additive and seemed to be polygenic with high heritability. The fecundity cost appeared overdominant in 1999, and
the hatch rate cost was partly recessive in 1999, but neither was significantly different from dominant or recessive. In 2004, we repeated our measures of resistance costs in Massachusetts in terms of fecundity and hatching success, and we added a new resistant population from Maine. In 2005,
we compared development time of Maine resistant and the laboratory susceptible colony eggs. Significant fecundity costs of resistance were found in both population in both 1999 and 2004, and significant egg developmental time costs were found in 1999 and 2005. However, the hatching success
costs of resistance were significant in 1999 and not apparent in 2004, suggesting some modification or replacement of the resistance genes in the intervening time.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.