Development and Evaluation of an Emulsified Paraffin Wax Dispenser for Season-Long Mating Disruption of Grapholita molesta in Commercial Peach Orchards
Authors: De Lame, Frédérique M.; Miller, James R.; Atterholt, Cynthia A.; Gut, Larry J.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 100, Number 4, August 2007 , pp. 1316-1327(12)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of CheckMate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (≈15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2007
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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