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Evaluation of the Pear Ester Kairomone as a Formulation Additive for the Granulovirus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Pome Fruit

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(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) is a larval kairomone for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchard studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, and pear, Pyrus communis L., to evaluate a 5% active ingredient (AI), microencapsulated formulation of pear ester (PE-MEC) as an insecticidal additive for the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV). Although CpGV applied at 5–15-d intervals at commercial rates (2.2 × 1012–1013 granules per ha) killed the majority (82–94%) of larvae found inside infested fruit, it did not eliminate significant damage, i.e., 30–92% fruit injury at harvest versus 51–82% in controls. PE-MEC treatments had significant but inconsistent results in our tests. In apple (mixed cultivars), PE-MEC (3.7–4.7 g [AI]/ha) plus CpGV reduced the percentage of fruit injured during the second but not the first larval generation, compared with CpGV alone, but there no was no additional population reduction (live larvae collected from infested fruit and tree bands). In ‘Bartlett’ pear, PE-MEC (3.7 g [AI]/ha) plus CpGV significantly increased larval mortality and reduced deep fruit entries at harvest over CpGV alone in 2006, but similar improvements were not observed in 2005 when a lower rate (1.5 g [AI]/ha) was tested. Surprisingly, compared with untreated controls, the PE-MEC formulation alone also reduced fruit injury (mid-season in Bartlett) and larval survivorship inside infested fruit at harvest (2006 apple tests and both years in Bartlett). Although pear ester seems amenable as a kairomonal adjuvant for use with insecticides, our inconsistent data with CpGV in apple and pear suggest practical improvements in formulation and application strategies (e.g., to optimize and maintain attractive release rates) are needed.

Keywords: CpGV; apple; ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate; kairomone; pear

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[702:EOTPEK]2.0.CO;2

Publication date: June 1, 2007

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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