Characterization of Antibiosis and Antixenosis to the Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Several Soybean Genotypes

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Abstract:

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an introduced pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in North America, and it can reduce yields by 50%. Since 2000, when A. glycines was first detected in the United States, studies of this insect and possible control methods have been initiated. Plant resistance to this aphid species is one important component of integrated control. Reproduction of A. glycines was compared on 240 soybean entries in a pesticide-free greenhouse. Eleven entries had fewer nymphs produced, compared with the susceptible checks, and these entries were used in follow-up experiments to assess antibiosis and antixenosis. Antibiosis was estimated in true no-choice tests, in which adults were confined individually in double-sided sticky cages stuck to the upper side of leaves. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests, in which all entries were planted in a single pot. Adult aphids were placed in the center of the pot, and 24 h later the number of adults on each plant was counted. Of the 11 entries evaluated, nine showed a moderate antibiotic effect to A. glycines, and the other two entries (K1639 and Pioneer 95B97) showed not only a strong antibiotic effect but also exhibited antixenosis as a category of resistance to A. glycines. The resistant soybean entries found in this work are potential sources for A. glycines control.



RESUMEN El áfido de la soya, Aphis glycines Matsumura, es una plaga introducida de la soya, Glycine max (L.) Merr., en Norte América y puede causar pérdidas en rendimiento hasta en un 50%. Se iniciaron estudios de este insecto y posibles métodos de control desde el año 2000, cuando fue detectado en los Estados Unidos. La Resistencia de plantas es un importante método de control en el manejo integrado contra este áfido. La reproducción de A. glycines fue comparada en 240 genotipos de soya en condiciones de invernadero libre de pesticidas. Once genotipos presentaron un número más bajo de ninfas que los testigos susceptibles y fueron usados en subsiguientes experimentos para detectar antibiosis y antixenosis. La antibiosis fue determinada por medio de experimentos de no-selección, donde adultos fueron confinados individualmente en pequeñas jaulas de doble faz pegadas sobre el haz de las hojas. La antixenosis fue estimada por medio de experimentos de libre selección, en los que diferentes genotipos fueron sembrados en un mismo recipiente. Los adultos fueron colocados en el centro del recipiente y el número de adultos en cada planta fue contado 24 horas después. De los 11 genotipos estudiados, nueve mostraron un moderado nivel de antibiosis al insecto, y los otros dos (K1639 y Pioneer 95B97), no sólo presentaron un alto nivel de antibiosis, sino que fueron los únicos genotipos que exhibieron antixenosis como categoría de resistencia. Los genotipos resistentes encontrados en este trabajo son potenciales fuentes de resistencia para controlar A. glycines.

Keywords: Aphis glycines; Glycine max; antibiosis; antixenosis

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-99.5.1884

Publication date: October 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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