Phenology, Natural Enemies, and Efficacy of Horticultural Oil for Control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas Tree Plantations

 Download
(PDF 402.2 kb)
 

Although the PDF version of the article is freely available, the article is available in other formats to subscribers of the journal or for purchase.


$28.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:

Abstract:

Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10°C (DD10°C). Second-generation egg hatch began at ≈1230–1300 DD10°C, and continued for ≈3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500–1600 DD10°C. Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500–1600 DD10°C. Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

Keywords: Chionaspis pinifoliae; Christmas trees; IPM; Pinus sylvestris; horticultural oil

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2005

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
  • Editorial Board
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Visit this journal's homepage
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content

Tools

Favourites

Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more