Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 10 house fly laboratory strains and 21 field populations are described with two substrates, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 3,4dichloronitro-benzene (DCNB), commonly associated with resistance. Three laboratory strains selected by tetrachlorvinphos, lindane (γ-HCH) and dimethoate, respectively, had significantly elevated CDNB- and DCNB-GST activities. The multiresistant field population 791a had significantly elevated CDNB- and DCNB-GST activities. Many strains recorded several individuals with high CDNB- and/or DCNB-GST activity and to evaluate these differences, phenotypes were defined by cluster analysis. A phenotype, GST-R, indicating high CDNB- and DCNB-GST activities, was found in 23 of 31 laboratory strains or field populations. GST-R was likely to be involved in γ-HCH resistance in strain 17e, tetrachlorvinphos resistance in strain 39m2b, and dimethoate resistance in strain 49r2b. The frequency of GST-R in selected laboratory strains and field population correlated with the frequency of house flies surviving the organophosphate azamethiphos either topically applied or by ingestion. There was no significant correlation between GST activity and the toxicity of the organophosphate dimethoate or the pyrethroids bioresmethrin and pyrethrin.
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