Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a major metabolic mechanism responsible for pyrethroid resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) from Asia. Cytochrome P450-mediated O-demethylation activity toward p-nitroanisole (PNOD) of individual fourth instars was determined in five strains of H. armigera by using a microplate reader. The four resistant strains of YS, HD, YGF, and YG59 had 6-, 71-, 2,540-, and 11,800-fold resistance, respectively, to fenvalerate in comparison with the susceptible BK77 strain. Their mean PNOD activity was 4-, 10-, 24-, and 60-fold, respectively, compared with the BK77 strain. A strong positive correlation (correlation coefficient r = 0.98) between PNOD activity and fenvalerate resistance was found. Of 48 larvae from each strain, only 4% larvae of the susceptible BK77 strain had detectable PNOD activity, whereas 25, 33, 79, and 96% of larvae from the resistant strains YS, HD, YGF, and YG59 exhibited PNOD activity, respectively. There was a clear discrimination of patterns of PNOD frequency distribution between H. armigera strains and their magnitudes of fenvalerate resistance. The PNOD activity can be used as a biochemical marker for monooxygenase-mediated pyrethroid resistance in field populations of H. armigera.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.