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The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.