Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Aerial Spray Prescriptions for Balsam Fir Stand Protection Against Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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Abstract:

Although commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) are being widely used in forest protection against lepidopteran defoliators, optimal application prescriptions have often yet to be worked out in detail. We conducted field experiments over a 6-yr period (1996–2001) in southwestern Québec to determine application prescriptions for optimal protection of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.), healthy stands against the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). At moderate larval densities (<30 larvae per 45-cm branch tip), similar foliage protection was achieved with one or two Btk applications of 30 billion international units per hectare (BIU/ha). When larval densities exceeded 30 larvae per branch tip, two successive applications of 30 BIU/ha significantly increased foliage protection. Whether the second application took place 5 or 10 d after the first spray did not affect treatment efficacy. Increasing the application dosage from 30 to 50 BIU/ha did not lead to better foliage protection against high larval densities, but the current standard dosage of 30 BIU/ha saved more foliage than 15 BIU/ha against moderate populations. The recommended dosage of 30 BIU can be applied in lower application volumes (1.5 liters/ha) by using a high-potency product (20 BIU/liter), because we did not observe a reduction in efficacy compared with the application of a lower potency product (12.7 BIU/liter) in 2.37 liters/ha. We also demonstrated that Btk can be applied much earlier in the season without compromising spray efficacy: there was no difference in treatment efficacy of double applications at 30 BIU/ha when the first spray was timed for early third, peak third, or early fourth instars.

Keywords: Abies balsamea; Bacillus thuringiensis; Choristoneura fumiferana; aerial spraying prescriptions; forest protection

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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