Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Bionomics of Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Previous reports indicate that applications of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, can lead to population buildups of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in the field. Moreover, laboratory studies showed enhanced fecundity of T. urticae after an imidacloprid treatment. In this study, experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to investigate the potential effects of imidacloprid and several other neonicotinoid insecticides on fecundity, egg viability, preimaginal survivorship, and sex ratio of T. urticae (German strain WI) on French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Four insecticides, i.e., imidacloprid (Confidor 200SL), thiacloprid (Calypso 480 SC), acetamiprid (Mospilan 70 WP), and thiamethoxam (Actara 25 WG), were tested at field-relevant (100, 120, 125, and 95 ppm) and sublethal doses (10, 12, 12.5, and 9.5 ppm), respectively. Both spray and drench applications were tested. At field-relevant doses, fecundity of T. urticae decreased and was lower in the treatments compared with the untreated control, whereas preimaginal survivorship and proportion of female offspring (i.e., sex ratio) were lower compared with the control. At sublethal doses, no significant differences were found among the treatments. Data on egg viability, preimaginal survivorship, and sex ratio at sublethal doses followed the same trends as at field-relevant doses. In an additional experiment, the metabolism of imidacloprid into monohydroxy-imidacloprid, olefine, guanidine, and 6-chloronicotinic acid was compared with the oviposition pattern of T. urticae. These findings are discussed with regard to previous laboratory and field observations of imidacloprid-induced fertility increases in T. urticae.
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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