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We compared a trap approach with a trap-tree approach to determine the need and timing of insecticide applications against overwintered adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), in commercial apple orchards in Massachusetts in 2002. All traps and trap trees were baited with benzaldehyde (attractive fruit odor) plus grandisoic acid (attractive pheromone). Sticky clear Plexiglas panel traps placed at orchard borders, designed to intercept adults immigrating from border areas by flight, captured significantly more adults than similarly placed black pyramid traps, which are designed to capture adults immigrating primarily by crawling, or Circle traps wrapped around trunks of perimeter-row trees, which are designed to intercept adults crawling up tree trunks. None of these trap types, however, exhibited amounts of captures that correlated significantly with either weekly or season-long amounts of fresh ovipositional injury to fruit by adults. Hence, none appears to offer high promise as a tool for effectively monitoring the seasonal course of plum curculio injury to apples in commercial orchards in Massachusetts. In contrast, baiting branches of selected perimeter-row trees with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid led to significant aggregation (14–15-fold) of ovipositional injury, markedly facilitating monitoring of the seasonal course of injury to apples. A concurrent experiment revealed that addition of other synthetic fruit odor attractants to apple trees baited with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid did not enhance aggregation of ovipositional injury above that of this dual combination. We conclude that monitoring apples on odor-baited trap trees for fresh ovipositional injury could be a useful new approach for determining need and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio in commercial orchards.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.