Design and Evaluation of an Aerial Spray Trial with True Replicates to Test the Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticide in a Boreal Forest

$28.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


A field trial using true replicates was conducted successfully in a boreal forest in 1996 to evaluate the efficacy of two aerially applied Bacillus thuringiensis formulations, ABG 6429 and ABG 6430. A complete randomized design with four replicates per treatment was chosen. Twelve to 15 balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) per plot were randomly selected as sample trees. Interplot buffer zones, ≥ 200 m wide, adequately prevented cross contamination from sprays that were atomized with four rotary atomizers (volume median diameters ranging from 64.6 to 139.4 μm) and released ≈30 m above the ground. The B. thuringiensis formulations were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from each other in reducing spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) populations and protecting balsam trees from defoliation but both formulations were significantly more efficacious than the controls. The results suggest that true replicates are a feasible alternative to pseudoreplication in experimental forest aerial applications.

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; efficacy; experimental design; replication; spruce budworm

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: April 1, 2003

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
  • Editorial Board
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Visit this journal's homepage
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more