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Millet Preference, Effects of Planting Date on Infestation, and Adult and Larval Use of Proso Millet by Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
The interaction between millet and European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was investigated to gain insight into whether millet could serve as a refuge or trap crop for O. nubilalis management. In 1995, 1996, and 1999, millet selection studies were conducted in North Dakota and New York with four millet species. Proso millet, Panicum milliaceum L., had the highest infestation and widest distribution of O. nubilalis developmental stages, indicating the presence of both univoltine and bivoltine ecotypes. Siberian foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) Beauvois, harbored the greatest number of adults, followed by German foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) Beauvois. These two millets appeared to serve as better aggregation sites than proso millet. In North Dakota in 1997, proso millet planting date studies showed later planting dates were more heavily infested than earlier dates; in 1998, this trend was reversed. The change in trends between years was probably a result of differences in the respective growing seasons and subsequent differences in O. nubilalis flights. Adult sampling showed that both old and young females aggregated in proso millet during the day; however, at night, it appeared that young females moved out of millet to oviposit, whereas old females remained in millet. Egg masses were detected in proso millet over a 7-d period in 1997 and a 4-d period in 1998. Larval sampling showed planting proso millet between late May and mid-June may maximize the presence of individuals from both O. nubilalis ecotypes. Once the optimal combination of planting date, plant density, and millet type is found, millet may serve as an effective refuge or trap crop for O. nubilalis management.
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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