Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Korean Entomopathogenic Nematode Isolates Against the Oriental Beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

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Abstract:

The oriental beetle Exomala (Anomala) orientalis (Waterhouse) is an important pest of turfgrass in Korean golf courses, and although a few chemical insecticides are registered for insect pest control, they are not very effective against scarab larvae. There is also a growing concern in Korea about the run-off of insecticides into sensitive habitats and the potential for groundwater contamination. A safe and environmentally sound alternative is needed to conventional insecticides. We therefore evaluated six Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates: S. carpocapsae Pocheon, S. glaseri Dongrae, S. glaseri Mungyeong, S. longicaudum Gongju, S. longicaudum Nonsan, and Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan for their potential as bioinsecticides for control of E. orientalis. In addition, we evaluated a reduced chemical insecticide approach that combined chlorpyrifos-methyl with nematodes. In laboratory tests Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan was the most efficacious, causing100% mortality of the second and 38% of the third instars. All other nematode isolates caused 50–80% mortality of the second and 15–30% of the third instars. E. orientalis pupae were highly susceptible to all the Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates except S. carpocapsae. In artificially infested field plots, all Korean nematode isolates cause 50–70% mortality of the third instar. A combination of a one-half rate of Heterorhabditis sp. and a one-half rate chlorpyrifos-methyl was synergistic, causing 91% mortality compared with 69% for the full rate of Heterorhabditis sp. or 22% for the full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl. In a second field trial, a natural infestation of preoverwintering third instar was treated. In this trial a one-half rate of S. longicaudum Nonsan plus a one-half rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl caused 96.8% mortality, much more than a full rate of S. longicaudum Nonsan (45.9% mortality) or a full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl (28.7% mortality). The interactions of Heterorhabditis sp. and S. longicaudum Nonsan with chlorpyrifos-methyl in our field trials appear to be synergistic.

Keywords: Exomala orientalis; Heterorhabditis; Steinernema; biological control; scarab beetles; white grub

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-95.5.918

Publication date: October 1, 2002

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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