Three laboratory experiments were performed to assess parasitization of freeze-killed house fly puparia, buried 0 to 6 cm in media, by Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Saunders, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner, Trichomalopsis sarcophagae (Gahan) and Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Virtually no parasitization occurred at depths greater than 1 cm in large arenas (988 cm2) with densities of 0.3 puparia and 0.008 female parasitoids per cm2. Parasitization was observed at depths as great as 4 cm for three of five species in small arenas (3 cm2) with densities of 6.4 puparia and 1.0 female per cm2. Combined across experiments, M. raptor achieved the highest level of parasitization, followed by M. zaraptor, M. raptorellus, U. rufipes, and T. sarcophagae. The greatest number of F1 females was produced by the gregarious species T. sarcophagae (834♀♀) and M. raptorellus (708♀♀), and then by the solitary species M. raptor (530♀♀), M. zaraptor (365♀♀) and U. rufipes (163♀♀). High parasitization by M. raptor and high production of offspring by T. sarcophagae identify these species as being particularly attractive as biological control agents.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.