Distribution and Sampling of the whiteflies Aleurothrixus floccosus, Dialeurodes citri, and Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Citrus in Spain

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From 1993 to 1995 data sets were collected from four citrus groves in Valencia, Spain, to determine the distribution patterns of eggs and nymphs of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell), Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), and Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) on leaves, and to develop reliable sampling plans for estimating densities of immature whiteflies. A. floccosus showed higher aggregation than the other two species. The dispersion index b from the Taylor power law did not vary between different developing stages for A. floccosus and D. citri, reaching overall values of 1.70 and 1.53, respectively. In P. myricae, b was 1.60 for eggs and N1, and 1.46 for the remaining nymphs. The minimum number of leaves to estimate the population density with a coefficient of variation of 0.25 for densities above 10 immature whiteflies per leaf was 40 for D. citri and P. myricae, and 250 for A. floccosus. Binomial sampling programs for the three species were rejected for pest management purposes due to the high sample sizes required. The enumerative procedure of counting the number of insects per leaf appears to be the most suitable method for D. citri and P. myricae. For A. floccosus an index of occupation (from 0 to 10) linearly related to the proportion of the leaf undersurface occupied by this insect was found to be reliable and time-saving. Examining 150 leaves with this index achieves the desired relative variation level of 0.25 for most population densities usually found in commercial groves.

Keywords: Aleyrodidae; citrus; distribution; sampling; whiteflies

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-95.1.167

Publication date: February 1, 2002

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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