Field-based studies and laboratory bioassays were conducted with apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, flies to investigate the performance and duration of activity of insecticide-treated biodegradable and wooden spheres for control of Rhagoletis species. Four neonicotinoid insecticide treatments including imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and thiocloprid at 2% (AI) were evaluated with biodegradable spheres. In 1999, significantly more apple maggot flies were found killed by imidacloprid-treated spheres compared with thiamethoxam-treated spheres during early and late season. In 2000, spheres treated with either of two formulations of imidacloprid killed significantly more apple maggot flies compared with thiamethoxam, thiocloprid, and untreated spheres. In blueberries, there were no significant differences between the numbers of blueberry maggot flies killed by both imidacloprid-treated or thiamethoxam-treated spheres in 1999. However, during the 2000 blueberry field season, both formulations of imidacloprid were significantly more effective in killing blueberry maggot flies compared with spheres treated with thiamethoxam, thiocloprid and untreated controls. Overall, spheres treated with thiocloprid were ineffective and did not kill significantly more apple maggot or blueberry maggot flies compared with the controls. Laboratory bioassays showed that the effectiveness of field-exposed spheres treated with imidacloprid at 4 and 8% (AI) and thiamethoxam at 4% (AI) in killing apple maggot flies was not significantly reduced over a 12-wk aging period. Additionally, wooden spheres aged outdoors for 12 wk with and without mold maintained residual activity in laboratory tests, whereas biodegradable spheres of equal aging, with and without mold lost their effectiveness in killing apple maggot flies. In other studies, we confirmed that the addition of an external feeding stimulant (sucrose) significantly increases the effectiveness of both biodegradable and wooden spheres treated with imidacloprid at 2% (AI).
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.