Last instar larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, were either exposed for 8–144 h on concrete treated with 1.9 × 10−3 mg(AI)/per cm2 hydroprene, or continually exposed on concrete treated with 9.8 × 10−4 to 1.9 × 10−3 mg[AI]/per cm2 hydroprene. In both tests, larvae were exposed and held at 27 or 32°C and 40, 57, or 75% RH. When larvae were exposed with no food to hydroprene for different time intervals, then transferred to untreated concrete containing flour, consistent effects were produced only at 144 h. At this exposure interval, the percentage of beetles arrested in the larval stage after 3–4 wk was generally greater at 75% RH compared with 40 and 57% RH, but there were no differences between species or temperature. The percentages of dead adult red flour beetles and live adults with morphological deformities were also greatest at 75% RH, and defects were more prevalent in red flour beetles than in confused flour beetles. When larvae were continually exposed to different concentrations of hydroprene on concrete that contained flour, the percentage of arrested larvae, dead adults, and live adults of both species generally increased with concentration. There were more deleterious effects at 75% RH compared with either 40 or 57% RH, and effects were more pronounced in the red flour beetle compared with the confused flour beetle. In both experiments, temperature effects were variable and inconclusive. Results indicate that continual exposure of last instar red flour beetle and confused flour beetle to hydroprene can limit population development, but exposure intervals of >6 d may be required for maximum effectiveness.
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