Aeration Management for Stored Hard Red Winter Wheat: Simulated Impact on Rusty Grain Beetle (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) Populations
Simulation studies were conducted to determine temperature accumulations below defined thresholds and to show the impact of controlled aeration on populations of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrigineus (Stephens), a major secondary pest of stored wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.). Recorded data from weather stations in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, eastern New Mexico, and eastern Colorado (356 total) were used to determine hours of temperature accumulation below 23.9°C in June and July, 15.6°C in September and October, and 7.2°C in December. At an airflow rate of 0.0013 m3/s/m3 (0.1cubic ft 3/min/bu), which requires 120 h of temperatures below the specified threshold to complete an aeration cycle, summer cooling at 23.9°C in bulk-stored wheat could be completed throughout the hard red winter wheat zone except for extreme southern Texas. An early-autumn cooling cycle at 15.6°C could not be completed throughout most of Texas and Oklahoma before the end of September. The late-autumn cooling cycle could be completed in all states except Texas by the end of November. Five geographic regions were delineated and the times required for completion of the summer, early-autumn, and late-autumn cooling cycles within each region were estimated. Population growth of the rusty grain beetle was modeled for San Antonio, TX; Abilene, TX; Tulsa, OK; Topeka KS; and Goodland, KS, by predicting the numbers of adults in the top, outer middle, outer periphery, and the center of the bin during a 1-yr storage season. Populations of C. ferrugineus in San Antonio and Austin were predicted to exceed the Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) threshold of two beetles per kilogram of wheat in all four levels of the bin during late autumn, decline during the winter, and increase the following spring. In Midland, TX, and Oklahoma City, OK, populations were predicted to exceed the threshold only in the top and outer middle of the bin, whereas populations in the Kansas locations were not predicted to exceed the threshold at any time.
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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