Large-Scale, On-Site Confirmatory, and Varietal Testing of a Methyl Bromide Quarantine Treatment to Control Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Nectarines Exported to Japan

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Abstract:

In total, 30,491 codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), 1-d-old eggs on May Grand nectarines in two large-scale tests, and 17,410 eggs on Royal Giant nectarines in four on-site confirmatory tests were controlled with 100% mortality after fumigation with a methyl bromide quarantine treatment (48 g3 for 2 h at ≥21°C and 50% volume chamber load) on fruit in shipping containers for export to Japan. Ranges (mean ± SEM) were for percentage sorption 34.7 ± 6.2 to 46.5 ± 2.5, and for concentration multiplied by time products 54.3 ± 0.9 to 74.5 ± 0.6 g · h/m3 in all tests. In large-scale tests with May Grand nectarines, inorganic bromide residues 48 h after fumigation ranged from 6.8 ± 0.7 to 6.9 ± 0.5 ppm, which were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tolerance of 20 ppm; and, organic bromide residues were <0.01 ppm after 1 d and <0.001 ppm after 3 d in storage at 0–1°C. After completion of large-scale and on-site confirmatory test requirements, fumigation of 10 nectarine cultivars in shipping containers for export to Japan was approved in 1995. Comparison of LD50s developed for methyl bromide on 1-d-old codling moth eggs on May Grand and Summer Grand nectarines in 1997 versus those developed for nine cultivars in the previous 11 yr showed no significant differences in codling moth response among the cultivars.

Keywords: Cydia pomonella; Prunus; fumigation

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-93.3.1025

Publication date: June 1, 2000

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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