Resistance to several classes of insecticides was correlated with azinphosmethyl resistance in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in California. In tests of laboratory and field populations, cross-resistance was positively correlated with azinphosmethyl and two organophosphates (diazinon, phosmet), a carbamate (carbaryl), a chlorinated hydrocarbon (DDT), and two pyrethroids (esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin). Additionally, negatively correlated cross-resistance was identified between azinphosmethyl and two other organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion. Patterns of resistance observed in laboratory colonies were confirmed with field bioassays. In bioassays of field populations, azinphosmethyl resistance was observed to increase from 1991 to 1993, although levels of resistance remained <13-fold. Because orchards with azinphosmethyl resistance have had difficulties with suppression of codling moth, and cross-resistance was found for all tested classes of insecticides, strategies for managing resistance will need to be developed so as to protect current and future control tactics. The two insecticides with negatively correlated cross-resistance are discussed as potential tools for resistance management.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.