The effect of insecticides on Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner emergence, adult survival, and fitness parameters was investigated. Insecticides tested were lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, thiodicarb, profenophos, spinosad, methoxyfenozide, and tebufenozide. All insecticides, with the exception of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, adversely affected Trichogramma emergence from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) host eggs when exposed at different preimaginal stages of development (larval, prepupal, or pupal). Regardless of the developmental stage treated, none of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the sex ratio or frequency of brachyptery of emerged females. However, the mean life span of emerged T. exiguum females significantly varied among insecticide treatments, and was significantly affected by the developmental stage of parasitoid when treated. Based on LC50 values, spinosad and prophenofos were the most toxic compounds to female T. exiguum adults, followed by lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and thiodicarb. Insecticides field-weathered for four to 6 d on cotton leaves showed no activity against female T. exiguum adults.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.