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The refuge plus high-dose strategy for resistance management assumes that the frequency of resistance alleles is low. We used an F2 screen to estimate the frequency of resistance to transgenic corn that produces Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Ab toxin (Bt corn) in an Iowa population of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). We also proposed a modification to the statistical analysis of the F2 screen that extends its application for nonuniform prior distributions and for repeated sampling of a single population. Based on a sample of 188 isofemale lines derived from females caught at light traps during the 2nd flight of 1997, we show with 95% confidence that the frequency of resistance to Bt corn was <3.9 × 10−3 in this Iowa population. These results provide weak evidence that the refuge plus high-dose strategy may be effective for managing resistance in O. nubilalis to Bt corn. Partial resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was found commonly. The 95% CI for the frequency of partial resistance were [8.2 × 10−4, 9.4 × 10−3] for the Iowa population. Variable costs of the method were $14.90 per isofemale line, which was a reduction of 25% compared with our initial estimate.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.