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Poultry litter usage in horticultural crop production is a contributor to nuisance fly populations, in particular stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) and house flies (Musca domestica L.). Extrapolation of adult emergence data suggests that ≈1.5 million house flies and 0.2 million stable flies are emerging on average from every hectare of poultry litter applied as a preplant fertilizer for vegetable production in Perth, Western Australia. To a lesser extent, sideband applications to established crops may allow for the development of 0.5 million house flies and 45,000 stable flies per hectare. However, up to 1 million house flies, 0.45 million lesser house flies, Fannia cannicularis L., and 11,000 stable flies per hectare may be produced from surface dressings of poultry litter associated with turf production. Other nuisance flies present in poultry litter included the false stable fly, Muscina stabulans (Fallén), bluebodied blowfly, Calliphora dubia Hardy, black carrion fly, Hydrotaea rostrata Robineau-Desvoidy, Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann, and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae). Only house flies developed in poultry litter for the first 4 d after application in the field. Stable flies were not present in poultry litter until 4–7 d after application, and were the only fly species developing in litter >9 d after application.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.