Imidacloprid, a chloronicotinyl, and halofenozide, a bisacylhydrazine ecdysteroid agonist, recently have become widely used for residual control of scarabaeid grubs in turf. We evaluated their impact on earthworms and beneficial arthropods in field trials, and tested whether application in late spring might interfere with subsequent predation on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, life stages in Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L., turf. Bendiocarb, a short-residual carbamate, was included for comparison. Imidacloprid caused some short-term suppression of earthworms, whereas bendiocarb had severe impact on earthworms, mesostigmatid mites, and Collembola. Pitfall trap captures of predatory coleopteran larvae and hister beetles were reduced by imidacloprid and bendiocarb, but abundance of ants, carabids, spiders, and staphylinids was largely unaffected. Halofenozide caused no reduction in abundance of any group of beneficial invertebrates. Scavenging on fresh-frozen A. ipsilon larvae was reduced for ≈1 wk after use of imidacloprid or bendiocarb, but predation rates on eggs or pupae of A. ipsilon, and on implanted P. japonica eggs, were unaffected. This work suggests that application of halofenozide or imidacloprid, followed by irrigation, will have relatively little impact on beneficial invertebrates, although both compounds are persistent enough to control P. japonica and Cyclocephala spp. grubs eclosing several months later.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.