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Comparison of the Activity Enhancement of a Baculovirus by Optical Brighteners Against Laboratory and Field Strains of Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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Abstract:

The enhancement of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (CfMNPV) activity by 4 optical brighteners was compared in the laboratory between nondiapausing laboratory and diapausing field strains of the western spruce budworm, C. occidentalis. The laboratory strain was 2.7 times as susceptible to the virus as the field population in terms of LD50 (dose at which 50% of the tested larvae died). When a 1% concentration of optical brightener was added to the virus, lethal doses for both strains were significantly reduced, indicating that all 4 brighteners acted as activity enhancers for CfMNPV. In terms of LD50, brighteners enhanced viral activity against the field strain more (7.6–11.0 times) than the laboratory strain (2.5–3.5 times). Although there were differences in larval susceptibility to CfMNPV between the 2 strains, LD50 values for both strains were reduced to the same levels when 1% brightener was added to the virus. Furthermore, the larvae died more quickly with the addition of brighteners. The time required to kill 50% of the larvae was reduced by 39–60% for the field strain, and by 43–57% for the laboratory strain by the addition of 1% brightener.

Keywords: Choristoneura occidentalis; diapausing strain; nondiapausing strain; nuclear polyhedrosis virus; optical brighteners; virus enhancement

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 1999

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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