Spread of Resistance in Spatially Extended Regions of Transgenic Cotton: Implications for Management of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Authors: Peck, Steven L.; Gould, Fred; Ellner, Stephen P.

Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 92, Number 1, February 1999 , pp. 1-16(16)

Publisher: Entomological Society of America

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Through the use of a stochastic, spatially explicit, simulation model, we explored factors that may influence the regional development of resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) to a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin in transgenic cotton. The model represents the age structure of adults and larvae, plant to plant movement of larvae within a field, migration of adults among fields, plant type-genotype specific selection, and development time. We find that the spatial scale and the temporal pattern of refuges can have a strong effect on the development of resistance to B. thuringiensis in transgenic cotton. The time to resistance was in general significantly longer in regions where the same fields were used as a refuge year after year, compared with regions where the refuge fields are changed randomly from year to year. Spring movement of emerging adults onto wild hosts delays resistance if the movement is far enough from the field in which pupae overwintered. Increases in the summer migration rate and the distance moved delayed resistance development up to a point at which higher rates do not further delay resistance. Refuges were an effective strategy for delaying resistance. We found that delays in larval development time on Bt cotton may either increase or decrease the rate of resistance development, depending on complex interactions with the length of the growing season. Larval movement between Bt and non-Bt plants was found to increase the rate at which resistance developed, but this may be ameliorated with increasing mortality costs associated with larval movement.

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Heliothis; resistance; spatial modeling; stochastic simulation modeling; transgenic cotton

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 1999

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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