Integration of Nonchemical, Postharvest Treatments for Control of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Walnuts
Authors: JOHNSON, J. A.; VAIL, P. V.; SODERSTROM, E. L.; CURTIS, C. E.; BRANDL, D. G.; TEBBETS, J. S.; VALERO, K. A.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 91, Number 6, December 1998 , pp. 1437-1444(8)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:We propose a treatment strategy combining an initial disinfestation treatment with 1 of 3 protective treatments as an alternative for chemical fumigation of walnuts for control of postharvest insect populations. The initial disinfestation treatment (0.4%O2 for 6 d) was designed to disinfest walnuts of field populations of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker). The protective treatments were low temperature (10°C) storage, controlled atmosphere (5%02) storage, and application of the Indianmeal moth granulosis vims, and were designed to prevent establishment of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The initial disinfestation treatment was effective against laboratory populations of navel orangeworm. Efficacy of protective treatments was determined by exposure to Indianmeal moth population levels far higher than those found in commercial walnut storage facilities. All 3 protective treatments prevented development of damaging Indianmeal moth populations as measured by pheromone trap catches and sample evaluation of the walnuts. No Indianmeal moths were trapped, nor were any seriously damaged walnuts (nuts with obvious damage that rendered the nutmeat less marketable or unmarketable) recovered from either low temperature or controlled atmosphere storage. Very low numbers of moths (≤21/wk) were trapped from walnuts treated with virus, and only 0.2%of the walnuts were seriously damaged. In contrast, large numbers of moths (U9-793/wk) were trapped from untreated nuts, and 35% of the sampled walnuts showed serious damage. Quality analysis by a commercial laboratory showed that overall walnut quality for all protective treatments was maintained at levels acceptable by industry standards.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1998-12-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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