Differential Susceptibility of Dysmicoccus vaccinii (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)
Authors: STUART, ROBIN J.; POLAVARAPU, SRIDHAR; LEWIS, EDWIN E.; GAUGLER, RANDY
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 90, Number 4, August 1997 , pp. 925-932(8)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:The susceptibility of the mealy bug, Dysmicoccus vaccinii Miller & Polavarapu, to infection by various species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes was investigated in laboratory sand-dish and sand-column assays. Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S.feltiae (Filipjev) (AB [Australia] strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NC strain) were ineffective against individual mealybugs in sand-dish assays conducted in small petri dishes (1 cm high by 3.5 cm diameter) at 25ºC with doses of infective juvenile nematodes ranging up to 500 or 1,000 infective juveniles and exposure periods up to 5 d. However, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 strain and 2 New Jersey isolates), H. hawaiiensis Gardner, Stock & Kaya (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus Poinar, Karunakar & David (EMS-13 strain) induced significant mortality (65.0-90.0%) at doses as low as 100 infective juveniles and an exposure of 5 d. H. bacteriophora (HBNJ strain) was effective at doses of 500 and 1,000 infective juveniles but, together with H. zealandica Poinar (V16 strain) and 4 other H. bacteriophora isolates from New Jersey, was ineffective at doses of 100 infective juveniles. Removal of the waxy coating from the mealybugs did not influence susceptibility to H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain). In the sand-column assay (5.5 cm high by 5 cm diameter, 5-d exposure, 25ºC), which more closely resembles host-finding in the field, H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain) induced no significant mortality against individual mealybugs at doses of 100 infective juveniles but produced 93.8% mortality at 500 infective juveniles, whereas H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) induced 56.3 and 100% mortality at 100 and 500 infective juveniles, respectively. H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain and some New Jersey isolates), H. hawaiiensis (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) successfully reproduced in and emerged from mealybug cadavers. This study demonstrates strong variability in the susceptibility of D. vaccinii to different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, and implicates certain heterorhabditids as promising candidates for the biological control of this insect.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 1997
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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