Population Suppression of Campylomma verbasci (Heteroptera: Miridae) by Atmospheric Permeation with Synthetic Sex Pheromone
Suppression of overwintering populations of Campylomma verbasci (Meyer) by atmospheric permeation with synthetic sex pheromone, 16:1 butyl butyrate: 2(E)-crotyl butyrate, was evaluated in apple orchards in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Five I-ha plots were each treated throughout late summer and fall 1993 and 1994 with 1,000 polyurethane dispensers (U8 mg load per dispenser). In 1993, dispensers were deployed singly. In 1994, 4 of 5 orchards were treated with 500 double-dispenser release points per hectare; the 5th orchard was treated as in 1993. Total pheromone applications modeled from laboratory release rates and hourly field temperatures were estimated to be 78.9 g/ha over 84 d and 80.6 g/ha over 75 d in 1993 and 1994, respectively. Compared with control plots, catches of adult males in pheromone-baited traps in treated plots from August to November in both years were reduced on average by 96%. Numbers of overwintering eggs laid in the fall were assessed the following spring by counting nymphs hatching from field-collected prunings and by limbtap samples. In 1994, numbers of 1st-generation nymphs were reduced significantly on average by 71 and 81% in 4 of 5 orchards as assessed by prunings and limb taps, respectively; damage samples at harvest corroborated these results. Switching from 1,000 to 500 release points per hectare in 1994 lessened the impact of treatment on numbers of 1st-generation nymphs in 1995. Despite reductions in numbers of overwintering nymphs, results were not consistent enough to suggest commercialization at this time. Because recent evidence shows that the dispensers may have been deployed after females had begun to lay overwintering eggs, efficacy might be improved by implementing treatments in mid-July. This is the first reported example of atmospheric permeation with synthetic sex pheromone causing a reduction in the population density of a heteropteran.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1997
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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