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Synergism of insecticide toxicity by piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and diethyl maleate (DEM) was examined in field-collected strains of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), from Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas in 1992 and 199.'3. Pretreatment with PBO significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the toxicities of cypermethrin (9 of 18 strains), methomyl (.'3of 9 strains), profenofos (2 of 12 strains), and thiodicarb (2 of 5 strains). However, PBO pretreatment significantly (P ≤0.05) decreased (i.e., antagonized) the toxicity of thiodicarb in 2 of the 5 strains tested. Similarly, significant (P ≤ 0.05) antagonism of toxicity following TPP pretreatment was measured in bioassays with cypermethrin (2 of 5 strains) and profenofos (1 of.'3 strains). Neither synergism nor antagonism was apparent in tests with DEM. In a replicated small-plot field test, 2 applications of cypermethrin (0.09 kg [AI]/ha) plus PBO (1.12 kg [AI]/ha) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced numbers of tobacco budworm larvae and damaged squares compared to treatments with cypermethrin alone. Demonstration of synergism of cypermethrin toxicity by PBO in both laboratory and field studies suggests that metabolic resistance to pyrethroids is an increasingly important consideration in the management of midsouth populations of the tobacco budworm. However, penetration of radiolabeled cypermethrin into 5th instars was decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) following pretreatment with PBO, suggesting that some of the effects measured in tests with this compound were not related to inhibition of metabolism.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1997
More about this publication?
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.