Maize Response to Corn Leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) Infestation and Achaparramiento Disease
Authors: HRUSKN, ALLAN J.; PERALTA, MODESTO GOMEZ
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 90, Number 2, April 1997 , pp. 604-610(7)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:To determine the effect that the timing of infestation of Dalbulus maidis (DeLong &Wolcott), a vector of 3 maize pathogens, known collectively as "achaparramiento," has on stunt symptoms and maize yield, we conducted a field trial in the Sebaco Valley of Central Nicaragua. Achaparramiento has caused severe yield losses in maize throughout Central America. Six periods of D. maidis infestation were created using exclusion cages of finemesh screening. The treatments were natural infestations of D. maidis during 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 0-40 d after plant emergence, and no D. maidis infestation. The treatments were repeated on 3 planting dates. During the season, population densities of D. maidis varied from 4 to 8 per plant for the 1st planting date, from 1 to 3 per plant in the 2nd planting date, and from 2 to 8 per plant in the 3rd date. Planting date had a significant effect on plant height, the number of ears, and the yield per plant, but not on disease symptoms or the length of the ears. The timing and duration of D. maidis infestation affected disease symptoms, plant height, and yield: earlier periods of D. maidis infestation produced more pronounced disease symptoms, shorter plants, and lower yields than treatments with late D. maidis infestation. Plant infested 10-20 d after plant emergence had significantly lower yields than plants infested 30-40 d after plant emergence, and plants infested 30-40 d after plant emergence did not have Significantly different yields from plants that were not infested. The yield reduction was caused by smaller ears, not a reduction in the number of ears. The results demonstrate that a management program for reducing the effects of maize stunting diseases caused by the 3 pathogens should be focused on tactics that reduce D. maidis levels from seedling through midwhorl stage of maize growth.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 1997
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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