Winter Mortality and Spring Emergence of Corn Stalkborers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Subtropical Mexico

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Abstract:

Winter survival and spring emergence of the crambine stalkborers Diatraea lineolata (Walker), D. saccharalis (F.), and Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) were studied in the com agroecosystem of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, from 1985 to 1992. Laboratory experiments to evaluate the effect of cold on survival of stalkborer larvae complemented the field studies. Numbers of stalkborers throughout the winter decreased linearly, and resulting regression slopes differed among species. Overall, 50% of larvae remained 42, 64, and 66 d after com physiological maturation for E. loftini, D. saccharalis, and D. lineolata, respectively. Larval disappearance was a result of mortality and development to pupae. Low temperatures caused significant mortality (45-100%) only during the winter of 1989-1990 when temperatures decreased to -8, very unusual for northern Tamulipas. Laboratory studies showed stalkborer populations were significantly reduced only if exposed for several hours at temperatures below -5, which has only occurred during two winters in this region during the last 28 yr. Borer mortality attributed to low temperatures was lower in stacked com than in field corn. Percentage of survivorship from full grown larvae to adulthood in emergence cages averaged 4.1, 11.0, and 21.8% for D. saccharlis, D. lineolata, and E. loftini, respectively. Although Cumulative moth emergence of the Diatraea species was sigmoid, that of E. loftini was linear. Fifty percent of cumulative emergence occurred during late February, mid-March, and early April for E. loftini, D. saccharalis, and D. lineolata, respectively.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 1995

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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