Preheating Isolation in a Simulation Model Generates Frequency-Dependent Selection and Alters Establishment Rates of Resistant Natural Enemies
In a stochastic simulation model, rates of establishment of new strains of arthropod natural enemies were examined under different assumptions for the fo1lowing four factors: (1) mating biases, (2) diploid state (dipole- or haplo-diploid), (3) degree of dominance of the resistance allele and (4) degree to which mating biases extend to heterozygous. In the simulation results. The amount of symmetrical mating bias (preference of females to mat!' with mall's of the same genotype) was an important factor in determining the rate of establishment when released individuals initially comprised 10% of the population. All interactions between mating bias and other three factors were also significant. Diploid level had no main effect but strongly interacted with other factors. When mating was random in simulations of halo diploid populations. the resistance allele was established faster than simulations of diplo-diploid populations. In those populations with no interbreeding between strains, however, diploid level had no effect on the rate of establishment of the resistance allele, As we expected from previous resistance models, the dominance of the resistance allele significantly affected the' rat of resistance development. When dominance varied, rates of resistance development for diplo-diploid simulations varied more than with corresponding baplo-diploid simulations. The" degree to which mating biases extended to heterozygotes depended on the levels of the other factors, especially the diploidy level. Our simulation results suggest that mating biases can have a large effect on the establishment of strains of arthropod natural enemies and in some cases may be capable of preventing establishment of strains that arc better adapted to local environments. If our simulations accurately represent pest management programs, incomplete' mating biases between the strain to be released and strains previously established might reduce efficacy when releases of small numbers of individuals are made.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 1995
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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