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Effect of Optical Brighteners on the Efficacy of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus in Forest Plots with High or Low Levels of Natural Virus

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Abstract:

Doses of a standard formulation of Gypchek (gypsy moth NPV) containing the sunscreen Orzan and a sticker were evaluated against gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along with experimental aqueous formulations of Gypchek in which Orzan was replaced by stilbene disulfonic acid optical brighteners, Phorwite AR (1991) or Blankophor BBH (1992), that had acted as potentiating agents for the virus in laboratory tests. The treatments were applied to gypsy-moth-infested small (0.02 hal forest plots where preliminary studies had demonstrated high (1991) or low (1992) levels of natural gypsy moth NPV. In 1991, treatments included two lower concentrations of Gypchek with the formulation containing Orzan as well as the formulation containing Phorwite AR. In 1992, treatments were the lower dose of Gypchek with two levels of Blankophor BBH, one dose of cell-culture-produced gypsy moth NPV with one level of Blankophor BBH, Blankophor BBH alone, and untreated control plots. The 1991 treatments containing Phorwite AR had significantly higher levels of gypsy moth larval mortality and significantly reduced LT50S compared with equivalent treatments containing Orzan. The Phorwite AR increased the mortality of gypsy moths (caused by the natural virus) to that of the high dose of applied virus without Phorwite AR. In 1992, all treatments containing Blankophor BBH with the low dose of virus had levels of gypsy moth larval mortality equal to or higher than the standard formulation with the higher dose of virus, significantly higher levels of gypsy moth larval mortality than the standard fom1Ulation with the lower dose of virus, and significantly reduced LT50S compared with either of the treatments containing Orzan. Natural gypsy moth NPV levels remained low in the control plots, and Blankophor BBH applied alone significantly increased the mortality of gypsy moths.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 1994

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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