Postharvest Control Treatments for Hypothenemus obscurus (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Macadamia Nuts

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Postharvest control techniques, including controlled-atmosphere treatments, cold and heat treatments, and composting of infested macadamia husks and nuts, were evaluated for control of Hypothenemus obscurus (F.) in macadamia nuts. Exposure of infested nuts in-husk to ≥95% CO2 at ambient temperatures (24-30°C) for 6 d resulted in 97.3% (±2.1) mortality of adult beetles. All adult insects were killed at this exposure time and concentration when nuts were husked (nuts in-shell) before treatment. A 14-d treatment of ≥95% N2 was required for 100% mortality in unhusked nuts. A cold treatment of 7°C for at least 14 d was required to provide 100% adult H. obscurus mortality in nuts in-husk. A 7-d heat treatment at 45°C also provided 100% mortality. Composting infested, culled macadamia nuts and husks with urea in a wooden bin system resulted in 100% mortality in 14 d, whereas composting with poultry manure resulted in 100% mortality in 7 d. A more rapid mortality (7 d) was obtained in a closed (drum) composting system compared with an open system (windrow pile), in which 14 d were required for complete H. obscurus control.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 1994

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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