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Continuous, Alternating, and Mixed Insecticides Affect Development of Resistance in the Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

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Susceptible populations of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.;, were selected with six insecticide treatment regimens: continuous use of permethrin, diazinon, or ivermectin; permethrin/diazinon (1:2) mixture; permethrin-diazinon rotation; and permethrin-ivermectin rotation. Insecticide selection was applied as low-volume sprays on steers infested with horn flies housed in environmentally controlled rooms. During the study period, horn fly populations developed an apparent resistance to all insecticide treatment regimens. Selection with permethrin, diazinon, and ivermectin resulted in development of resistance in generations 21, 31, and 30, respectively. Selection with insecticide mixtures and rotations resulted in the delay of any apparent resistance development for an additional one to seven generations. The magnitude of this resistance ranged from 1,470-fold for the single continuous use of permethrin to <3-fold for ivermectin in the permethrin-ivermectin rotation. Compared with single continuous insecticide selections, the onset and degree of resistance development was significantly reduced by alternating and mixing insecticides.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 1993

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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