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A multiple-quarantine treatment of compression and hydrogen phosphide fumigation (60 g/28.3 m3 for 7 d at > l0°C)was developed to control Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), in six species of hay exported to Japan. The hay included timothy, Phleum pratense; alfalfa, Medicago sativa; oat, Avena sativa; Sudan grass, Sorghum bicolor sudanensis; Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon; and rye straw, Secale cereale. Commercial hay compressors configured to produce 72 and 80 kg/cm2 of pressure caused 93 and 97% mortality of Hessian fly puparia in bales held for 7 d in freight containers, respectively. Hydrogen phosphide fumigation of compressed bales significantly increased the mortality of puparia that survived compression in the bales. The total number of Hessian fly puparia tested and insect mortality for all species of hay was 255,191 and 99.940%, respectively, based on the number of puparia in wheat seedlings, and 105,763 and 99.855%, respectively, based on the number of puparia reared to the adult stage in laboratory controls. In total, 153 puparia survived hay compression and fumigation and were reared to the adult stage. The extraordinary number of insects tested in our large-scale tests would not occur in export-quality hay, and mortality would be increased by postharvest hay handling procedures. Hay compression and hydrogen phosphide fumigation can be used to control Hessian fly in a multiple-quarantine treatment and to maintain quarantine security levels required by regulatory agencies for hay exported to Japan.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 1993
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.