The residual life and toxicity to foraging honey bees, Apis mellifera L., of 17 insecticides (12 pyrethroids, 4 organophosphates, and 1 formamidine) appli;~d to cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Arizona were examined over time up to 21-d after application in a series of four tests during a 3-yr period (1985-1987). Organophosphate re~idues disappeared rapidly from cotton leaf surfaces with <;5% initial deposit remaining 3 dafter application. Most pyrethroid residues dropped to<5% initial deposit 7 and 10 dafter application in July 1985, and 10 and 15 d after application in July 1986. Two exceptions were bifenthrin wettable powder which dropped to <5% at 5 d after application and permethrin, which remained >5% at 15 d after application. Residues remaining from the September applications were higher than from the July applications. The addition of chlordimeform to pel1l1ethrin did not significantly affect the residual life of pemlethrin nor did it affect the significance of the cis- and trans-isomer relationships to each other. It did, however, change the significance of the isomer relationships to other pyrethroids. Honey bee mOltalities of 85-100% from leaves freshly treated with organophosphates were higher than from any other insecticides except for bifenthrin emulsifiable concentrate (100%) and wettable powder (95%) and pel1l1ethrin with chlordimefol1l1 (95%) and without chlordimefol1l1 (89%), Except for encapsulated methyl parathion, the insecticides tested were safe for forager bees 3 dafter application. One day after application permethrin plus chlordimefol1l1 gave 84% mOltality compared with 47% with no chlordimefol1l1. This synergism was not seen 011 subsequent days. On two occasions, bee mortality was greater from cyAuthrin-b'eated leaves the day following treabl1ent than immediately after b•eabllent. This conb'adicts data from residues where insecticide levels were higher immediately after treatment than the day following treabllent.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1992
More about this publication?
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.