Three Methods of Aluminum Phosphide Application for the In- Transit Fumigation of Grain Aboard Deep-Draft Bulk Cargo Ships
Authors: LEESEH, J. G.; ARTHUR, F. H.; DAVIS, R.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 83, Number 4, August 1990 , pp. 1459-1467(9)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:Three methods of applying aluminum phosphide were tested aboard a deepdraft vessel to determine the suitability of each method for fumigating grain in transit. Resultsshowed that all three methods were highly effective with only low levels of phosphine residues resulting in the wheat. However, the recirculation method provided faster and more even distribution of phosphine throughout the grain mass than did the two passive methods. After a fumigation exposure of 26 d, all insects exposed at positions where concentration x time (C x T) values were> 1.0 were killed. As tested in this study, all three methods posed no hazards to the ship's crew or to dock workers unloading the cargo at destination.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 1990
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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