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Mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis and Pyrethroids Control Winter Moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Orchards Without Causing Outbreaks of Mites

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Abstract:

Extensive trials with mixtures of Bacillus thuTingiensis var. kUTstaki Berliner (Dipel wettable powder) and pyrethroids showed the efficacy of these mixtures against winter moth, OpeTophtera brumata (L.), and their compatibility with integrated mite control in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. In the mixtures, concentrations of the pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin) were one-tenth of the recommended orchard rates. Levels of winter moth injury to harvested fruit were as low with the mixtures of Dipel and pyrethroids as with half-rate or full-rate treatments of pyrethroids. Prebloom application of several mixtures significantly reduced fruit injury caused by mirids, mostly Atractotomus mali (Meyer) and Campylomma verbasci (Meyer), and the pale apple leafroIler, Pseudexentera mali Freeman, and the obliquebanded leafroIler, ChoristoneuTa Tosaceana (Harris). Counts of European red mite,Panonychus ulmi (Koch), and apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa), were lower, and populations of their principal natural enemy, TyphlodTomus pYTi Scheuten, were detected more frequently in plots treated with Dipel-pyrethroid mixtures than in plots treated with pyrethroids at half or full rates. Levels of leaf bronzing induced by European red mite and apple rust mite were also less where mixtures were used. The mixture of Dipel with the emulsifiable concentrate formulation of cypermethrin was particularly compatible with integrated mite control. Counts of European red mite and levels of leaf bronzing induced by European red mite with this mixture did not differ from the levels observed in the plots treated with Dipel alone.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 1990

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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