Commercial and Naturally Occurring Fly Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as Biological Control Agents of Stable Flies and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on California Dairies
Authors: MEYER, J. A.; MULLENS, B. A.; CYR, T. L.; STOKES, C.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 83, Number 3, June 1990 , pp. 799-806(8)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:Filth fly parasites reared by commercial insectaries were released on two dairies (MO. DC) in southern California to determine their effect on populations of house flies,Musca domestica L., and stable flies.Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Spalangia endius Walker. Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner. and Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner were released on the MO dairy from 1985 to 1987 in varying quantities. Parasitism by Muscidifurax zaraptor on the MO dairy was significantly higher (P < 0.05) from the field collected stable fly (4.4%) and house fly (12.5%) pupae. compared with a control dairy (0.1%. stable fly; 1.3%, house fly). Muscidifurax zaraptor, released from April through October during 1987 on the DC dairy (350,000 per month), was not recovered in a significantly higher proportion from either fly species relative to the corresponding control dairy. No specimens of Muscidifurax raptorellus were recovered from the MO dairy. Parasite treatments had no apparent effect on adult populations of either fly species or on overall parasitism rate of field-collected stable fly (16.8%. MO; 17.2%. DC) and house fly (23.3%, MO; 20.9%, DC) pupae. Spalangia spp. were the predominant parasites recovered from field-collected stable fly and house fly pupae on all four dairies. Sentinel house fly pupae placed in fly breeding sites on both release dairies were parasitized at a significantly higher rate, as compared with sentinel pupae on control dairies. The generic composition of parasites emerging from sentinel house fly pupae was 20.6% Spalangia spp. and 73.2% Muscidifurax spp.• whereas in field-collected house fly pupae, Spalangia spp. and Muscidifurax spp. constituted 74.3 and 19.6% of the parasites. respectively.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1990-06-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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