Control of Lone Star Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Spanish Goats and White-tailed Deer with Orally Administered Ivermectin

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Ivermectin administered orally to Spanish goats, Capra hircus (L.), or to whitetailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), was highly effective against lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). For Spanish goats, daily oral doses of 20 µg/kg resulted in ≥2 ppb ivermectin in the blood. This level was sufficient to cause >95% reduction of estimated larvae from feeding ticks. A bioassay with horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), was developed to estimate oral intake of ivermectin. Probit analysis of dose-mortality data indicated that a 50% reduction in adult horn fly emergence can be expected when the manure from goats treated orally with ivermectin at 10, 20, 35, and 50 µg/kg/d was mixed with untreated cow manure at a rate of 0.345, 0.110, 0.100, and 0.092%, respectively. In studies with whitetailed deer, daily oral doses of 35 and 50 µg/kg/d provided 100% control of adult and about 90% control of nymphs that were placed on treated fawns. A single oral dose of 50 µg/kg gave >90% control of adult and nymphal ticks attached to treated fawns at the time of drug administration and 70% control of ticks placed on treated deer three days thereafter. When ticks were placed on fawns treated with a single dose of ivermectin (50µg/kg) the engorgement period was longer, ticks were lighter in weight, and females laid fewer eggs than ticks detaching from control fawns. A single oral dose of ivermectin at 20 µg/kg prevented about 60% of the adult and nymphal ticks attached at the time of drug administration from engorging, but did not affect other ticks placed on the animals after treatment.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 1989

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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