Control of Arthropods on Apple, Malus × domestica (Borkh.), Selections for Scab (Ascomycetes: Mycosphaerellacea) and Apple Maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resistance in an Orchard in Indiana
Three years of sampling an apple orchard with seven selections resistant to apple scab, Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., five of which were also resistant to apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), growing on three different rootstocks (EMVII, MMI06, and MM111), indicated a faunal composition consisting of eight orders from which 31 taxa in 21 families were identified. Among the 14 most frequently found groups in descending frequency were aphids, Aphis pomi De Geer and Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini; leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.); plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); ants, Lasius neoniger (Emery) and Prenolepis impairs(Say); leafhoppers, Empoasca maligna Walsh, Jikradia olitoria (Say), Penthimia Americana (Fitch),Scaphytopius sp., and Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee; tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); green fruitworm, Lithophane antennata (Walker); flea beetle genera (unidentified); ladybird beetles, Adalia bipunctata (L.), Anatis sp., Brachiacantha ursina(F.), Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake, Hippodamia conoergens Guerin-Meneville,Myzia pullata (Say), and Olla v. nigrum Mulsant; apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh); redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker); lacewing, Chrysopa carnea (Stevens); and green stink bug, Acro8ternum hilare (Say). Direct inverse relationships were found between numbers of identified pests and predators. Signficant differences in the incidence of arthropods were found among rootstocks and among selections. Based on these findings, we used a modified program of insecticides only (azinphosmethyl and carbaryl and fenvalerate and phosmet with water as the control applied 9, 36, and 81 d after full bloom), and obtained ≳80% fruit without any arthropod damage. The total crop was evaluated from fruit set to harvest. The cost of chemicals per hectare for the azinphosmethyl and carbaryl program was 83.40; for the fenvalerate and phosmet program, the cost was 136.30. Reductions in pesticide costs of 1,387.40 per hectare needed for an eight spray program to control pests and diseases can be achieved if commercially grown cultivars are replaced by resistant cultivars.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: October 1, 1989
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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