Walnut Husk Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Evaluation of Traps for Timing of Control Measures and for Damage Predictions


Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 82, Number 4, August 1989 , pp. 1191-1196(6)

Publisher: Entomological Society of America

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In 2 yr of field tests in commercial walnut, Juglans regia L., orchards in northern California, an ammonium carbonate-baited fluorescent yellow Pherocon AM rectangle was approximately 10 times more attractive to adult walnut husk flies, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, than the standard Pherocon Am trap or an unbaited green sphere during most of the season. The green sphere was not attractive in early season when husk flies began to emerge but increased in attractiveness relative to the other traps as the season progressed. Once the sphere began to catch husk flies, it was as effective as the standard Pherocon AM trap. Adult flies began to respond to ammonium carbonate-baited and standard AM traps long before (42 and 44 d, respectively) females oviposited. Catches on green sphere traps, on the other hand, were closely synchronized with egg laying, becoming attractive shortly before or at the time nuts were attacked. The interval from first oviposition to harvest was the same on early- and late-maturing varieties. Cumulative catch on the ammonium carbonate- baited Pherocon AM trap was a better predictor for the infestation level at harvest than catches on the green sphere. These studies suggest that the green sphere is a better indicator for the timing of chemical treatments, whereas the ammonium carbonate-baited yellow rectangle appears to be more reliable for evaluating the damage potential of a husk fly population.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 1989

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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