Responses of Rice-Infesting and Grass-Infesting Populations of Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) to Rice Plants and Leersia Grass and to Their Steam Distillate Extracts

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Abstract:

The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is a major rice pest in Asia. Recently, a population of N. lugens was found thriving on Leersia hexandra Swartz, a weed grass common in ricefields. We studied orientational and settling responses, feeding behavior, metabolism of ingested food, growth, adult survival and egg production, oviposition, and hatchability of eggs of the two N. lugens populations on Taichung Native 1 (cv. TNl) rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants and on L. hexandra grass. TNl plants were best suited for the establishment of the rice-infesting population, and L. hexandra was a favorable host for the Leersia-infesting population. Individuals derived from one host did not thrive on the other host because of a significant reduction in feeding, assimilation of food, growth, longevity, and fecundity. Plant volatiles, extracted as steam distillates from TNl rice plants and L. hexandra grass, significantly affected the behavior and biology of rice- and grass-infesting N. lugens. The odor of TNl extract attracted rice-infesting N. lugens, whereas that of L. hexandra extract attracted grass-infesting N. lugens. The odor of TNl rice plants neither attracted nor repelled grass-infesting N. lugens individuals or vice versa. TNl extract was more toxic to the first instars and newly emerged females of grass-infesting N. lugens than the extract of L. hexandra. Similarly, L. hexandra extract was more toxic to the first instars and newly emerged females of rice-infesting N. lugens than TNl extract. Ingestion and assimilation of food by females of rice-infesting N. lugens were reduced on TNl plants treated with L. hexandra extract compared with those on plants treated with acetone or TNl extracts. Intake and assimilation of food by grass-infesting N. lugens were also significantly reduced on L. hexandra plants treated with TNl extract. However, feeding or assimilation by rice-infestingN. lugens on L. hexandra plants treated with TNl extract or grass-infesting N. lugens on TNl plants treated with L. hexandra extract remained unchanged. Gas chromatography analyses of steam distillates from TNl rice versus L. hexandra plants indicated several differences.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 1988

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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